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International Carriages: Carriages of goods be sea, Air, Multimodal Transportation

International carriage refers to the transportation of goods across national borders using different modes of transportation such as sea, air, and land. The main types of international carriage are carriages of goods by sea, air, and multimodal transportation.

Carriage of Goods by Sea: Carriage of goods by sea is the most common mode of international transportation, accounting for the majority of global trade. The carriage of goods by sea is governed by various international conventions, including the Hague Rules, the Hague-Visby Rules, and the Hamburg Rules. These conventions establish the rights and obligations of the parties involved in the carriage of goods by sea, including shipowners, cargo owners, and carriers. They also set out the rules governing the carriage contract, liability for loss or damage to goods, and the procedure for making claims.

Carriage of Goods by Air: Carriage of goods by air is another important mode of international transportation, particularly for time-sensitive or high-value goods. The carriage of goods by air is governed by the Warsaw Convention and its successor, the Montreal Convention. These conventions establish the liability of air carriers for loss or damage to goods during transportation, and provide for the compensation of cargo owners in the event of such loss or damage.

Multimodal Transportation: Multimodal transportation refers to the use of more than one mode of transportation for the carriage of goods, such as sea, land, and air. Multimodal transportation is often used to transport goods from one country to another, and is governed by various international conventions, such as the United Nations Convention on International Multimodal Transport of Goods. This convention provides for a uniform set of rules governing multimodal transportation, including the liability of the carrier for loss or damage to goods during transportation.

In summary, international carriage of goods is an essential aspect of international trade and commerce, and involves the use of different modes of transportation, each of which is governed by specific international conventions and rules.