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The basic model of consumer behavior is a conceptual framework that outlines the process through which individuals make decisions regarding the purchase and consumption of goods and services. While different models may have variations, a common framework involves several stages. One widely used model is the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) model. Here’s a simplified version of the basic consumer behavior model:

1. Input Stage:

a. Marketing Stimuli:

  • External influences from marketing efforts, such as advertising, promotions, product design, and pricing.
  • Marketers aim to create stimuli that capture consumer attention and influence perceptions.

b. Environmental Influences:

  • External factors beyond marketing, including cultural, social, economic, and technological influences.
  • These factors shape the overall environment in which consumers make decisions.

2. Process Stage:

a. Consumer Perception:

  • Consumers receive and interpret the marketing stimuli based on their perceptual filters, which include sensory experiences, attitudes, and beliefs.
  • Perception involves how individuals organize and interpret the information received from the external environment.

b. Consumer Learning:

  • Consumers acquire knowledge and skills related to products or services through experiences, exposure, and information processing.
  • Learning influences future behavior and decision-making.

c. Motivation:

  • Internal factors that drive individuals to satisfy their needs or desires.
  • Motivation is a key determinant of consumer behavior and influences the direction and intensity of behavior.

d. Attitude Formation:

  • Consumers develop attitudes (positive or negative evaluations) toward products, brands, or services based on their perceptions, beliefs, and experiences.
  • Attitudes guide future behavior and decision-making.

e. Personality and Lifestyle:

  • Individual characteristics, including personality traits and lifestyle factors, shape consumer preferences and choices.
  • Marketers may tailor their strategies to align with specific personality traits or lifestyles.

3. Output Stage:

a. Purchase Decision:

  • Consumers, after processing information and evaluating alternatives, make a decision to purchase or not to purchase a product or service.
  • Purchase decisions are influenced by factors such as perceived value, brand loyalty, and external influences.

b. Post-Purchase Evaluation:

  • After the purchase, consumers assess their satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the product or service.
  • Post-purchase evaluation influences future behavior, brand loyalty, and word-of-mouth communication.

4. Feedback Loop:

a. Post-Purchase Feedback:

  • Consumers’ experiences and feedback, whether positive or negative, can influence future marketing stimuli and strategies.
  • Marketers may use feedback to refine products, services, or marketing campaigns.


  • The model recognizes the dynamic nature of consumer behavior, acknowledging that external influences, perceptions, and experiences are constantly evolving.
  • Cultural, social, and individual differences may lead to variations in how consumers move through these stages.

This basic model provides a framework for understanding the factors and processes that influence consumer decision-making. It helps marketers identify opportunities to create effective marketing strategies that align with consumer needs, preferences, and motivations.